two-child policy is a government-imposed limit of two children. It has been previously used in Vietnam . In British Hong Kong in the 1970s, citizens were also highly encouraged by the law (and it was not mandated by law), and it was used by the region’s family planning strategies. Since 2016, it has been implemented in China. [1] [2]

China

During the 1970s, Chinese citizens were encouraged to have one child. [3] The ongoing cultural revolution and the position of the nation were broad factors. During this time, the birth rate dropped from Nearly 6 children per woman to just under 3. [4] (The colloquial term „births per woman“ is usually Formalized as the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), a technical term meaning in demographic analysis the average number of children who would be born to a woman in her lifetime if she were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates through her lifetime.)

As China’s youngest generation (born under the one-child policy , which first became a requirement for most couples in 1979), a single child would be parents and oven grandparents. In response to this issue, the parents were only children. [5] After a change of the Chinese government in late 2013, most Chinese provinces are more than just child. [6] [7] [8]

Han Chinese living in rural areas were often permitted to have children. [9] Because of boxes Such As thesis, as well as urban couples Who simply paid a fine (or „social service fee“) to Have More Children, [10] the overall fertility rate of mainland China is, in fact, closer to two children for one family (1.8). In addition, since 2012, Chinese in southern Xinjiang have been allowed to have two children. This, along with incentives and restrictions contre Higher Muslim Uyghur fertility, Was seen as attempt to counter the threat of Uyghur separatism . [11]

On October 29, 2015, Xinhua reported the change in the existing law to a two-child policy quoting a statement from the Communist Party of China . [12] [13] The new policy allowing Chinese couples to have their children in China. [14] On December 27, 2015, the new law was passed in the National People’s Congress Standing Committee , which governs country’s laws, effective January 1, 2016. [15] [16] [17]

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the Two is Enoughcampaign in the 1970s Encouraged people-to-have two gold Fewer children in Each family, Contributing to the Reduced birth rate in the Following decades (poster with actress Fung Bo Bo )
See also: Demographics of Hong Kong

In British Hong Kong , the Eugenics League was founded in 1936, which became the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 1950. [18] The organization provides for family planning, sex education , and birth control services to the general public of Hong Kong. In the 1970s due to the rising rising population, it launched the „Two is Enough“ campaign, [18] which reduced the general birth rate through educational means. The organization [19] founded the International Planned Parenthood Federation , with its counterparts in seven other countries. [19] The total fertility ratein Hong Kong is currently 1.04 children per woman, one of the lowest in the world. Although the „Two is Enough“ campaign, it does not reflect the current state of the art. Tax allowances of 100,000 HK $ per child can be claimed for up to 9 children. [20] Moreover, parents who have fallen into hardship can apply for special assistance from the state. This is a means-tested financial benefit, which is not limited to a particular number of children. [21]

Iran

Iranian public relations in Iran from the early 1990s to late 2006. Iran’s government „declared that Islam favored families with only two children“, as one historian put it. [22] When the nation’s health ministry launched a nationwide contraceptive campaign – pills, condoms, IUDs, implants, tubal ligations, and vasectomies. [23] Starting in 2006, the government’s population control policy changed when Ahmadinejad called for reversal of Iran’s existing policy of „two children is enough“ [24] and later in 2012 Ayatollah Khameneialso stated that Iran’s contraceptive policy made sense 20 years ago, „but their continuation in later years was wrong … Scientific and expert studies show that we will face population aging and reduction (in population) if the birth-control policy continues.“ [25]

Singapore

Main article: Population control in Singapore

In Singapore , the two-child policy until the 1980s was called „Stop at Two“.

United Kingdom

In July 2007, the think tank Optimum Population Trust (now Population Matters ) advocated what the Daily Mail described as a „two-child“ policy to fight population increases and climate change in the United Kingdom. The article stated:

„According to the report, published by the Optimum Population Trust, Britain’s high birth rate is a major factor in the current level of climate change, which can only be combated if families voluntarily limit the number of children they have.“ [26]

In October 2012, the Conservative Party ’s proposed policy has been described as a‘ two-child policy ‚ by the Secretary of State for Work. [27] and Pensions and former leader of the Conservative Party Iain Duncan Smith . [28]

In April 2015, David Cameron denied any such plans to cut child benefits or tax credits. However, George Osborne , the Minister of Finance, said it would be limited to only two children. This was to come into force in the 2017/2018 financial year and apply to children after that date only. [29]

The two-child policy took effect on 5 April 2017. One particular aspect of the new rules, termed the „rape clause“, has caused controversy. ALTHOUGH the policy excludes all purpose the first two children from all available benefits, an exemption can be applied for if the design of the third and further Top Any children occurred as a result of the rape of the claimant. A woman wishing to claim this exemption in an eight-page form:

„I believe the non-consensual design exemption applies to the rule of law.“ my child. ‚ They must also sign another statement that says: ‚I confirm that I am not living with the other parent of this child.‘ “ [30]

That the woman must be identified with the child in question (which is thought to be assigned to the tax code created for this exemption [31] ), with their abusers are not eligible are just some of the aspects of the clause that causes widespread condemnation. Ruth Graham, writing for Slate , summarizes the issues surrounding this new policy:

„The policy and the exemption has been announced in 2015. One member of parliament calls the exemption implementation ‚inhumane and barbaric.‘ Feminists have pointed out the cuts disproportionately affect women.A coalition of the UK’s largest Christian denominations and Jewish groups pointed out that the policy discriminates against the people of the United States. explain the policy last year, because they were raped. “ [32]

Vietnam

Vietnam has had a population policy for over 50 years. It was launched by the Vietnamese government in the early 1960s in Vietnam and continued in Vietnam. [33] The policy emphasizes the official family-size goal , which means „one or two children.“ [34]

In 2014 Vietnam had an estimated population of 92.5 million people, which represented 1.28% of the total world population. [35] Currently, the total fertility rate of Vietnam is 1.8 (births per woman), [36] which is below the replacement-level fertility of 2.1, the rate of return to the next generation. according to the World Resources Institute. [37]

History

From 1954 to 1975, Vietnam was split into North and South Vietnam along with the other countries. North Vietnam became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and had a communist government, South Vietnam became the Republic of Vietnam and was more aligned with the United States and other Western nations. [38] In 1963, North Vietnam began a policy advocating a two-or-three-child norm to increase the population of the rural population. [34]China and India, China and IndiaThe government used a system of information, education and communication (IEC) campaign and publicly available contraceptives to curb the population. [39] After the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1975 under the Communist Party, there was a governmental effort to extend the policies of the North to the rest of Vietnam, which extended into the next decade. [40] The government of the Republic of Vietnam, in the name of the official state of the art. [41]

In 1982, the Vietnam government practiced various family planning measures, including the allowance of the abortion and the creation of the National Committee for Population and Family Planning. After 1983, each family was required to limit the number of children to two. In 1985, the government increased incentives, such as contraceptives and abortion acceptors, and disincentives, such as penalties for violations in family planning. [41]

In 1986, the Party implemented the Renovation ( Đổi Mới ) Policy, which completely reversed the Communist Party economy to implement capitalistic market ideals. The aims of the Renovation Policy were to end Vietnam’s economic isolation, increase competitiveness, and raise living standards. [42] In the attempt to effectively develop the population socioeconomically and increase the standard of living among the population, the [43] In 1988, the Council of Ministers issued an amendment to the French language, adding additional restrictions beyond the previous restriction. [44]The detailed one-or-two-child policy of Vietnam Was Established Nine Years After China’s one-child policy Was Implemented, and elements of China’s policy are reflected in Vietnam’s, Such As the emphasis is marrying later, [33] Postponing childbearing age ( 22-years of age or older for women and 24-years of age or older for men), [44] and spacing out birth of children (3-5 years apart). [33] [44] The state Was required to supply free birth control devices (Such As intrauterine loops , condoms , and birth control pills) and to Provide facilities for Individuals Who are eligible for abortions. [44]Furthermore, if families did not comply with the two-child policy, they were required to pay high fees and were unable to move into urban centers. [44]

In 1993, the Vietnamese government issued the first formalization of the unified Vietnam of the one-to-two child policy as a national mandatory policy. The policy combines advertising and education to a smaller family „so people can enjoy a plentiful and happy life.“ [45] The Vietnamese government explicitly binds the planning of historical and cultural traditions, value structures and development objectives, „encouraging a collectivist mindset in which individuals honor the needs of the nation above their own. [43] The goal of the policy was to reduce the fertility rate to 2.1 [37]by 2015, so that the country could have a stable population during mid-21st century. In 1997, the goal was accelerated to reach the replacement level by 2005, and the government subsequently integrated an increase in the proportion of population growth. [46]

In 2003, the Standing Parliamentary Committee of the National Assembly issued the first of its kind documents to the Population Ordinance, which restructured the official family planning policy. [33] According to the ordinance, couples „shall have the right to decide on the time to have babies, the number of children and the duration between child births.“ [47] However, shortly after, the government implemented the National Strategy on Population 2001-2010, which again called for decreasing the fertility rate by 2005. to their reproductive rights. [33]To address this confusion, the government issued Resolution 47 in 2005 which stated that „to sustain high economic growth, Vietnam needs to pursue a population control policy. However, at this time, the population had already reached the goal of having a total fertility rate. [33]

In 2009, the Population Ordinance was revised to include children in the United States, and they were allowed to decide on the timing and spacing of their births. [48] The government is currently drafting a new Law on Population to replace the Population Ordinance in 2015. However, there is disagreement between policy makers and academics on what should be included in the law. [49]

Administration

The organizational structure of the two-child policy was conceived in the 1960s. As the policy evolved from „Initiation in the 1960s-1970s; Maturity in the 1980s-1990s; and Legalization in the 2000s-2010s,“ [33] the administration of the population policy also changed. From 1961-1983, the population program fell under the Population and Birth Control Unit. From 1984-2002, it was under the control of the National Committee for Population and Family Planning. From 2003-2006, it was in the jurisdiction of the Viet Nam Commission for Population, Family, and Children. Since 2007, the population program has been under the General Office for Population and Family Planning. [33]

Although the policy was advocated on the national level, the central government did not use specific fine or incentives, instead delegating implementation responsibilities to local governments. [39]Each family is required to have more children and more local authorities. Depending on the specific location, the district shall be charged with fines from 60 to 800 kilograms of paddy rice, equivalent to the wages of a month to a year, for each additional child, and more 120 to 400 kilograms of rice. Individuals who did not use contraceptives sometimes had their names on the intercom system of the village to get used to them, the patients who were trying to get to the Labor Medal for „good realization of the population-family planning program.“ [39]The government and large companies also regularly denied their employees, promotions, and sometimes even their jobs. [39]

Current status

Currently, the actual population policy is the revised 2009 Population Ordinance which states that „each couple has the right to have a right to participate in a family planning campaign. ii) have one or two children, exceptional cases to be determined by the Government. “ [48]Thus, individuals have control over the timing and spacing of their children. Furthermore, later that year, Chief Executive Trương Tấn San stressed the need for continued diligence in population control and the population of Vietnam should be 100 million people by 2020, and suggested that a new comprehensive Law on Population be introduced to the government by 2015. [33]

Effects of this policy

Reduction of the birthrate

The total fertility rate in Vietnam was dropped from 5.6 in 1979 to 3.2 by 1993, suggesting the two-child policy was successful in containing the population growth. [50] According to one demographic model, the Bongaarts‘ model of the components of fertility , high rates of contraceptive use and abortion are plausible explanations for the decreased fertility rate. Moreover, because of this policy, the population has fundamentally changed their ideas of the family. In 1988, the Inter-Censal Demographic and Health Survey found that parents wanted an average of 3.3 children, and in 1994, they found that the ideal number of children fell to 2.8. [50]

However, the reported findings are different depending on the fertility model used. The United Nations Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific found that it was 3.1 in 1998. [51] In another study conducted by the America-based non-profit, non-governmental organization Population Reference Bureau , the number found was lower at 2.3. [52] Another study, published in the Worldwide State of the Family in 1995 by Tran Xuan Nhi, [53] found a contrasting finding que le total fertility rate only dropped Slightly and the size of nuclear familiesexperienced only a slight change, dipping from 4.8 to 4.7 from 1989 to 1994. [51]

Sex-based differences

There is evidence that his preference exists in Vietnam. [54] Traditionally, men oversee and are responsible for household enterprises, managing agriculture, ancestral worship, and carrying on the family name. [55] However, the desire for a son is seen in the Vietnamese family’s fertility practices, the desire for more than one’s is not. [55] Families with two daughters are more likely to have a third child than one family, presumably with the hopes that this one will be a boy. [55] Furthermore, women who do not have any sounds are around 15% less likely to use contraceptives than families who have at least one. [54]There have also been some rates of „contraceptive failure“ among couples who have had sex with their loved ones. [56] This is consistent with the findings of the United States in which its preference corresponds to a demand for less children than one’s at least one to maintain the ancestral line. [54]

Despite the evidence for its preference, there is no clear evidence that East Asian countries, namely China, are more likely to be conflicting depending on the source. [56] In fact, according to the Vietnamese census data for 1989 and 1999, the sex ratios of males to females at birth are actually decreasing. [56] On the other hand, some sources state that the impact of its preference varies by region of Vietnam. In the north, there is a strong relationship between sex bias in fertility decisions and number of male births, while in the south, this relationship is nonexistent. [55]However, mothers who pursue certain occupations, such as government cadres and farmers, are more likely to have a particular sex and sex ratio. This reflects the pressure for government employment to the two-child limit, and the perceived need for labor in the farm. [56]

Criticism

Inadequate contraceptives

Although the policy states that „the state will supply, free of charge, birth control devices … to eligible persons who are cadres, manual workers, civil servants or members of the armed forces … and poor persons Widespread schedule … The dirty of birth control devices will be permitted to Facilitate Their use by everybody That needs them, “ [57] the only modern contraceptive Readily available in Vietnam is the IUD. [58] However, many women choose to be affected by this condition, such as increased bleeding, back and abdominal pain, headache, and general weakness. [59]Thus, contraceptive use is low among women under the age of 25, and experts have speculated that „contraceptive use among young women might increase, temporary, easy-to-use methods, such as the pill and the condom, were more accessible. „the government to achieve its two-child policy, the survey committee recommends increased promotion of the commercial availability of the condom and the pill, and strengthening of the government family planning program.“ [58]

Increased abortion

Abortion rates in Vietnam are unusually high by international standards, with a total abortion rate of at least 2.5 abortions per woman. [60] Generally, the abortion rate for young age groups is higher than average age. Individuals of higher educational levels also have higher abortion rates. [61] Vietnam also has some of the world’s most liberal abortion laws, though the Vietnamese government is aiming to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related difficulties. [62] Although sex-selective abortions were banned by the government in 2006, [62]There is evidence that his preference is associated with a higher likelihood of repeating abortions, as women with no sound were significantly less likely to have abortion compared to women. [63]

There are multiple factors influencing Vietnam’s high abortion rates. First, because of the need for contraceptive methods, while the condoms remain expensive relative to average income, as a result of effective birth control. [60]Women who have undergone multiple contraceptive methods, such as condoms and contraceptive pills, which are less effective than long-acting contraceptives to which many do not have access. [63] Secondly, due to the higher costs of raising a child in some geographic areas of Vietnam, abortions have become more acceptable. [60]Furthermore, the era of modernization and the development of free-market reforms since the 1980s, and the subsequent increase in services. [60] Additionally, the Vietnamese government has insufficient alternatives to abortion in the family planning and lack of contraceptive post-abortion dialogues for families. [62] Thus, experts have suggested more diverse, long-acting contraceptive alternatives and increasing counseling for families that have experienced an abortion in Vietnam. [63]