Population Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits is a nonfiction book by Steven W. Mosher , first published in 2008. „Population Control“ is a detailed exhibition on the global effort to combat overpopulation , arguing that it is not only in many cases , and that overpopulation is a myth.

Mosher was first exposed to population control policies when he visited China as an undergraduate sociologist in 1979 to conduct anthropological research. While there, he witnessed the implementation of China’s one child policy in Guangdong providence firsthand.

Mosher questions the standard Malthusian idea that overpopulation is a threat to human happiness and survival.