Human migration , being the movement by the people of the world, or the intention to settle on it Migration can be voluntary or involuntary . Involuntary migration includes the slave trade , trafficking in human beings and ethnic cleansing .

Pre-modern migrations

Historical migration of human populations begins with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa Eurasia about 1.75 million years ago. Homo sapiens, about 70,000 years ago, moved out of Africa, and had spread across Australia , Asia and Europe by 40,000 BCE. Migration to the Americas took place 20,000 to 15,000 years ago. Nonetheless, by 2,000 years ago, most of the Pacific Islands were colonized. Later population movements include the Neolithic Revolution , Indo-European expansion , and the Early MedievalGreat Migrations including Turkic expansion . In some places, substantial cultural transformation occurred following the migration of relatively small elite populations, Turkey and Azerbaijan being such examples. [2] In Britain, it is considered that the Roman and Norman conquests are similar examples, while „the most hotly debated of the British cultural transitions is the role of migration in the abrupt and dramatic change from Romano-Britain to England. Saxon Britain „, which may be explained by a possible“ substantial migration of Anglo-Saxon Y chromosomes into Central England (contributing 50% -100% to the gene pool at that time.) “ [3]

Early humans migrate due to many factors such as changing climate and landscape and inadequate food supply. The evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Austronesian peoples spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it befalls that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps distinctly separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages . It is believed that this migration started around 6,000 years ago. [4] Indo-Aryan migrationfrom the Indus Valley to the River Ganges in Northern India is presumed to take place in the Middle to Late Bronze Age, Late Harappan phase in India (ca 1700 to 1300 BC). From 180 BC, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, Indo-Greeks , Indo-Scythians , Indo-Parthians and Kushansin the northwestern Indian subcontinent . [5] [6] [7]

From 728 BC, the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in several places, including Sicily and Marseille. In Europe, two waves of migrations dominate demographic distributions, that of the Celtic people and that of the last migration of the North and East, both being possible examples of general cultural change sparked by above elite and warrior migration. citation needed ] Other examples are small movements like that of the Magyars into Pannonia (modern-day Hungary ). Turkic peoples in their homeland in modern Turkestan across most of Central Asiain Europe and the Middle East between the 6th and 11th centuries. Recent research suggests that Madagascar was uninhabited until Austronesianseafarers from Indonesia arrived during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. Subsequent migrations from both the Pacific and Africa, and Malagasy people emerged. [8]

Before the expansion of the Bantu languages and Their speakers, the southern half of Africa is Believed to-have-been populated by Pygmies and Khoisan -speaking people, today Occupying the arid regions around the Kalahari Desert and the forest of Central Africa. By about 1000 AD, Bantu migration had reached modern day Zimbabwe and South Africa . The Banu Hilal and Banu Ma’qil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes from the Arabian Peninsula who migrated westwards via Egyptbetween the 11th and 13th centuries. Their migration strongly contributed to the Arabization and Islamization of the Western Maghreb , which was dominated by Berber tribes. Ostsiedlung was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germans . The 13th century was the time of the great Mongol and Turkic migrations across Eurasia . [9]

Between the 11th and 18th centuries, there were numerous migrations in Asia. The Vatsayan Priests from the eastern Himalayan hills, migrated to Kashmir during the Shan invasion in 1203C. They settled in the lower Shivalik hills in 1206C to sanctify the manifest goddess. In the Ming occupation, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến(southward expansion). [10] Manchuria was separated from China by the Inner Willow Palisade , which restricted the movement of Han Chinese into Manchuria during the early Qing Dynasty, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the beginning of the colonization of the area with the later in the dynasty’s rule. [11]

The Age of Exploration and European colonialism led to an accelerated pace of migration since early modern times. In the 16th century, perhaps 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. [12] In the 19th century, over 50 million people left Europe for the Americas. [13] The local populations or tribes, Such As the Aboriginal people in Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, Japan [14] and the United States, Were usually far overwhelmed numerically by the settlers.

Industrialization and the Rise of Imperialism

While the pace of migration HAD accelerated since the 18th century already (Including the involuntary trade Slavic ), It Would Increase further Top in the 19th century. Manning distinguishes three major types of migration: labor migration, refugee migration, and urbanization . Millions of agricultural workers left the countryside and moved to the cities unprecedented levels of urbanization. This phenomenon began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread around the world and continued in many areas.

Industrialization encouraged migration wherever it appeared. The global economy globalized labor market. The Atlantic slave trade diminished sharply after 1820, which gave rise to self- contract labor migration from Europe and Asia to plantations. Overpopulation citation needed ] , open agricultural frontiers, and rising industrial centers Attracted voluntary migrants. Moreover, migration has been made easier by improved technology.

Romantic nationalism also rose in the 19th century, and, with it, ethnocentrism . The great European industrial empires also rose. Both factors contribute to migration, as some countries favored their own ethnicity over outsiders and other countries. For example, the Russian Empire identified with Eastern Orthodoxy , and confined Jews, who were not Eastern Orthodox, to the Pale of Settlement and Restrictions. Violence was also a problem. The United States was promoted to a better location, a „golden land“ where Jews could live more openly. [15] Another effect of imperialism, colonialism, colonizing parts from „home countries“ to „colonies“, and eventually migration from „colonies“ to „home countries“. [16]

Transnational labor migration reaches a peak of three million migrants per year in the early twentieth century. Italy, Norway, Ireland and the Guangdong region of China have been particularly prominent during these years. These large migrations flows in the process of the nation’s state formation in many ways. Immigration restrictions have been developed, as well as diaspora cultures and myths that reflect the importance of migration to the founding of certain nations, like the American melting pot . The transnational labor migration fell to a lower level of the 1930s to the 1960s and then rebounded.

The United States Experienced considerable internal migration related to industrialization, Including icts African American population. From 1910 to 1970, approximately 7 million African Americans migrated from the rural areas of Southern United States , where blacks and poor economic opportunities and significant political and social prejudice, to the Northeast, Midwest and West, where relatively well-paid jobs were available. [17] This phenomenon is known in the United States as its own Great Migration, although historians today consider the migration to have two distinct phases. The term „Great Migration“, with a qualifier, is now more often used to refer to the first phase, which ended roughly at the time of the Great Depression . The second phase, which is roughly involved in US involvement in World War II to 1970, is now called the Second Great Migration . With the demise of legalized segregation in the 1960s, and in the aftermath of South Africa, millions of blacks have returned to the South from other parts of the country since 1980 in what has been called the New Great Migration .

The World Wars And Their Aftermath

The First and Second World Wars, and wars, genocides, and crises sparked by them, had an enormous impact on migration. Muslims moved from the Balkan to Turkey, while Christians moved the other way, during the Ottoman Empire collapse. In April 1915 the Ottoman government embarked upon the decimation of its civilian Armenian population. The persecutions continued with 1923 when the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist and was replaced by the Republic of Turkey. The Armenian population of the Ottoman state was reported to be about two million in 1915. An estimated one million had perished by 1918, while hundreds of thousands homeless and stateless refugees. By 1923 virtually the entire Armenian population of Anatolian Turkey had disappeared. Four hundred thousand Jews had already moved to Palestine in the early twentieth century, and many Jews to America, as already mentioned. The Russian Civil War caused some three million Russians, Poles, and Germans to migrate out of the new Soviet Union.Decolonization following the Second World War also caused migrations. [18] [19]

The Jewish communities across Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East, are formed from voluntary and involuntary migrants. After the Holocaust (1938 to 1945), the British Mandate of Palestine , which became the modern state of Israel as a result of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine .

Provisions of the Potsdam Agreement from 1945 signed by victorious Western Allies and the Soviet Union to the largest European migrations, and the largest in the 20th century. It involved the migration and resettlement of close to or over 20 million people. The largest affected group were 16.5 million Germans expelled from Eastern Europe westwards . The second group Were Largest Poles , millions of Whom Were Expelled westwards from eastern Kresy area and resettled in the so-called Recovered Territories (see Allies decided Polish border in the section on the Oder-Neisse line). Hundreds of thousands of Poles, Ukrainians ( Operation Vistula ), Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians and some Belarusians have been expelled from Europe to the Soviet Union. Finally, many of the several hundred thousand Jews remaining in Eastern Europe after the Holocaust migrated outside Europe to Israel and the United States.

Partition of India

Main article: Partition of India

In 1947, on the Partition of India , large populations moved from India to Pakistan and vice versa, depending on their religious beliefs. The score was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 as a result of the dissolution of the British Indian Empire . The partition displaced up to 17 million people in the British Indian Empire form, [20] with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million. [21] Muslim residents of the British India migrated to Pakistan (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), while Hindu and Sikh Residents of Pakistan and Hindu residents of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) moved in the opposite direction.

In modern India, estimates based on the migrant industry around 100 million circular migrantsin India. Caste, social networks and historical precedents play a powerful role in shaping patterns of migration. Migration for the poor is mainly circular, as it is still moving to urban areas, they lack the social security. They are also keen to maintain a foothold in home areas during the agricultural season. An individual can decide to relocate to another country, but to a series of social, economic and political challenges. Change is a dynamic phenomenon, but people choose to migrate to other countries for better pastures. An Egyptian with small children emigrating to the US may face a lot of challenges when he or she decides to leave his country. The decision to move from one country to another is quite straightforward (Ratha, Christian and Sonia 21). Another challenge of such a move in the feeling of missing one’s family while in the foreign country. One may miss the best time and one of the most important events. Besides, you will not be able to go back to your home country. One may miss the best time and one of the most important events. Besides, you will not be able to go back to your home country. One may miss the best time and one of the most important events. Besides, you will not be able to go back to your home country.

Change is profoundly complex and inevitable, but if an "Egyptian family with young children" has a chance to immigrate legally, they should migrate. Some of the factors that may lead to an economic growth, advancements, and ecological factors. Migrants who move from their home country to the United States (KALLEBERG 897). An Egyptian moving to the US will benefit when he will be paid well compared to when he works in his home town. Moreover, an Egyptian or any other citizen of the United States for education purposes (Norman 345).

In addition, the US may have a desire to move forward because of such advancements such as transportation and communication skills and economic development (Kalleberg 897). Ecological factors such as the change in the environment can also make an Egyptian to legally migrate to the US due to change in the environment that leads to a food shortage in their country. Egyptians who are severely impacted by changing ecological conditions may prefer to migrate to their home country. However, when an Egyptian migrates to the US, there are certain laws that he or she should consider before migrating. As such an Egyptian should consider the cost of living before deciding which state to settle in. he or she should check out the price of food, and he or she should be familiar with the exchange rate. An Egyptian should also consider the language while maintaining Canada English. Egyptian Americans are among the most recent groups to immigrated to the United States. Compared to other Arabs, the Egyptians are regarded as one of the most sedentary ethnic groups, which began to emigrate in significant numbers only during the latter part of the twentieth century. Majority of people in Egypt migrates for economic or educational reasons. The United States has organizations such as the Black Alliance for Justice and the Advocacy of African American and Black Immigrant Communities to Organize and Advocate for Racial, Social, and Economic Justice. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) is also one of the largest civil rights and advocacy organizations dedicated to fighting against Muslims.

The US has better housing facilities, and therefore an Egyptian immigrant may choose to settle in any area of ​​his or her choice. Rental housing has always provided a broad choice of homes, and may include a private home. (Link et al., 580). An Egyptian migrating to the US may be a part of the world because of a large percentage of people living in the United States. An Egyptian immigrant with young children can meet people and make friends while in the United States. If he or she is going to the US to study it or she may be acquainted with other students in the same campus. Besides, he can meet people and make friends online. Attending religious groups and meeting people at his place of work may make him or her to make friends. He or she may also be part of the immigrant community while in the United States, if it is a need for immigrants to be helped by the government, he or she should benefit from it.

In the United States every citizen has freedom of worship, therefore, an immigrant may choose to go Coptic Church or Islamic Center. Besides, an immigrant from Egypt should maintain a good relationship with his country in the United States (see Ratha, Christian and Sonia 21). He or she should encourage their parents and other relatives in the United States, and he or she should also visit his family in Africa.

In conclusion, Migration is vital in the story of the human race. People move to survive. They move in search of food. They move away from danger and death. They move towards opportunities for life and opportunities and advancement (Harvey 32). Migration is bound to the human spirit, which seeks adventure, pursues dreams, and finds reasons to hope even in the most adverse circumstances. Such movement affects the communities migrants leave and the communities that receive these migrants.

Research by the Overseas Development Institute identified rapid movement of labor from slower to faster-growing parts of the economy. Often migrants can find Themselves excluded by urban housing policies, and migrant media initiatives are needed to give workers Improved access to market information, certification of identity, housing and education . [22]

In the riots which preceded the partition in the Punjab region, between 200,000 and 500,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide. [23] [24] UNHCR estimates 14 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition. [25] Scholars call it the largest mass migration in human history: [26] Nigel Smith, in his book Pakistan: History, Culture, and Government , calls it „history’s greatest migration.“ [20]

See also

  • Early human migrations
  • Human migration
  • Human timeline
  • Immigration § History

Notes and references

  1. Jump up^ Literature: Göran Burenhult: Die ersten Menschen, Weltbild Verlag, 2000.ISBN 3-8289-0741-5
  2. Jump up^ Tatjana Zerjal; Wells, R. Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; et al. (2002). „A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia“ . The American Journal of Human Genetics . 71 (3): 466-482. doi : 10.1086 / 342096 . PMC  419996  . PMID  12145751 .
  3. Jump up^ Weale, Michael E .; Deborah A. Weiss; Rolf F. Jager; Neil Bradman; Mark G. Thomas (2002). „Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration“ . Molecular Biology and Evolution . 19 (7): 1008-1021. doi :10.1093 / oxfordjournals.molbev.a004160 . PMID  12082121 . Retrieved 11 May 2011 .
  4. Jump up^ Language trees support the express-train sequence of Austronesian expansion,Nature
  5. Jump up^ The appearance of Indo-Aryan speakers,Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. Jump up^ Trivedi, Bijal P (2001-05-14). „Genetic evidence suggests European migrants may have influenced the origins of India’s caste system“ . Genome News Network . J. Craig Venter Institute . Retrieved 2005-01-27 .
  7. Jump up^ Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations – Bamshad et al. 11 (6): 994, Genome Research
  8. Jump up^ Malagasy languages,Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. Jump up^ Migrations – & – World History
  10. Jump up^ The Dynasty and Southward Expansion
  11. Jump up^ From Ming to Qing
  12. Jump up^ „The Colombian Mosaic in Colonial America“ ​​by James AxtellArchived2009-11-19 at theWayback Machine.
  13. Jump up^ David EltisEconomic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic slave trade
  14. Jump up^ Report on a New Policy for the Ainu: A Critique
  15. Jump up^ SeeWorld of our Fathers, by Irving Howe, and particularly the first sixty or so pages of that book
  16. Jump up^ For example,people migrated from the Indian subcontinent to the UK during the Imperial era and afterwards.
  17. Jump up^ Great Migration, accessed 12/7/2007
  18. Jump up^ Patrick Manning,Migration in World History(2005) p 132-162.
  19. Jump up^ Adam McKeown, ‚Global migration, 1846-1940‘ in:Journal of Global History(June 2004).
  20. ^ Jump up to:b Pakistan: History, Culture, Government by Nigel Smith, Page 112
  21. Jump up^ Metcalf, Barbara; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2006), A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. Xxxiii, 372,ISBN 0-521-68225-8.
  22. Jump up^ „Support for migrant workers: the missing link in India’s development?“. Overseas Development Institute . September 2008.
  23. Jump up^ Paul R. Brass (2003). „The score of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946-47: means, methods, and purposes“ (PDF) . Journal of Genocide Research . p. 75 (5 (1), 71-101) . Retrieved 2014-08-16 .
  24. Jump up^ „20th-century international relations (politics): South Asia“ . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 2014-08-16 .
  25. Jump up^ „Break in South Asia“ (PDF) . UNHCR . Retrieved 2014-08-16 .
  26. Jump up^ Dr Crispin Bates (2011-03-03). „The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies“ . BBC . Retrieved 2014-08-16 .