The birth rate (technically, births / population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year. [1] The birth rate of births, births, deaths, and marriages; population counts from a census , and estimated through Specialized demographic techniques. The birth rate (along with mortality and migration rate) are used to calculate population growth .

The crude birth rate is the number of live births per year per 1,000 midyear population [2] [3] Another term used interchangeably with birth rate is natality . [4] When the crude death rate is subtracted from the crude birth rate, the result is the rate of natural increase (RNI). [5] This is equal to the rate of population change. [5]

The total (crude) birth rate (which includes all-births) -typically indicated as births per 1,000 population-is distinguished from an age-specific rate (the number of births per 1,000 persons in an age group). [6] The first known use of the term „birth rate“ in English occurred in 1859. [7]

The average birth rate is 18.5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016. [9] The death rate is 7.8 per 1,000 per year. The RNI is thus 1.06 percent. In 2012 the average global birth rate was 19,611 according to the World Bank [10] and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA, [11] compared to 20.09 per 1,000 total population in 2007. [12]

The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population is estimated to be about 4.3 births / second or about 256 births / minute for the world. [9]