A „choice-based, marketable, birth license plan,“ or „birth credits“ for population control has-beens Promoted by urban designer and environmental activist Michael E. Arth since the 1990s. [1] Previous iterations of similar transferable birth licensing schemes can be traced to aussi economist Kenneth Boulding (1964) and leading ecological economist and steady-state theorist Herman Daly (1991) [2] [3]

Arth offers birth credits in the space of solutions to human overpopulation That May take too long (like economic development and traditional family planning ), impractical are (like space colonization ), cruel gold (like forced sterility, genocide , famine , disease , and war ). [1]

Implementation

Arth’s plan as described in His books The Labors of Hercules and Democracy and the Common Wealth , is a way to set PRECISELY human population levels while still preserving choice. Birth Any credits Would allow woman to-have as Many Children as she wants, as long as she buys a license for Any children beyond year average allotment That Would result in zero population growth .

If it was determined to be one child, then the first child would be free, and the market would determine the cost of the license for each additional child. Extra credits would expire after a certain time, so these credits could not be hoarded by speculators. An advantage of the scheme is that the affluent would not buy them because they already limit their family size by choice, as evidenced by an average of 1.1 children per European woman. [4] [ dubious – discuss ]

Incentive and enforcement

According to Arth, a woman can collect the value of a child. If the desired number of children is one per woman, then a woman can have one for free. If she has additional children, she will be required to buy one birth credit for each child. The incentive to society is the prevention of an overpopulation-related tragedy of the commons , including an immediate reduction in unwanted children. The incentive to individuals is that of their economic and educational levels, which is an inverse relationship between net worth and the number of children one has. As with traffic laws, enforcement de birth credits could be fine, tax levies, or loss of privileges. [1] [5]

Cost

The scheme would pay for itself by charging them with a greater number of children. The actual cost of having a child is only a small fraction of the cost of having and raising a child. Therefore, the credits would serve as a wake-up call to women who might otherwise produce children. [6] [7]

Balancing collective vs individual rights

The choice-based marketable birth license Was offert you plan way to balance the collective right to live in a world with a sustainable population Against the individual right to-have as Many Children as one can commit to raising, while aussi Reducing the number of unwanted irresponsible gold births. Some previous attempts to limit population growth in India or China, which appear to have this same intention, have in some cases put resistance as they are focused on limiting the number of children. number of children desired. During India’s state of emergency between 1975 and 1977, under the leadership of Prime Minister Indira GandhiThere is more information available on the subject of vasectomy and tubal ligation programs. The resulting backlash is more difficult. [8] [9] Also in China, under the One-Child Policy, there were also overzealous officials who were jailed for enforcing sterilization or using forced abortions. order to meet population quotas. [10] [11]

See also

  • childfree
  • Eugenics
  • Tax on childlessness

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:c „Archived copy“ . Archived from the original on 2009-01-05 . Retrieved 2011-11-30 . Interview with Michael E. Arth by Alex Birch
  2. Jump up^ Philip A. Lawn,Toward Sustainable Development, Lewis Publishers, 2000,ISBN 1-56670-411-1p. 299.
  3. Jump up^ [1]Joseph Cox,Will Charging People Money to Have Kids Save the World From Overpopulation, VICE United Kingdom, 24 June 2013
  4. Jump up^ Arth, Michael E. (2010). Democracy and the Common Wealth: Breaking the Stranglehold of the Special Interests. Golden Apples Media,ISBN 978-0-912467-12-2, pp. 352-361.
  5. Jump up^ [2]Joseph Cox,Will Charging People Money to Have Kids Save the World From Overpopulation, VICE United Kingdom, 24 June 2013
  6. Jump up^ http://laborsofhercules.org/The Labors of Hercules Modern Solutions to 12 Herculean Problems-Labor II: Overpopulation
  7. Jump up^ Arth, Michael E. (2010). Democracy and the Common Wealth: Breaking the Stranglehold of the Special Interests. Golden Apples Media,ISBN 978-0-912467-12-2.
  8. Jump up^ „The Indira enigma“ . Frontline . May 11, 2001 . Retrieved 2006-07-28 .
  9. Jump up^ „Male involvement and contraceptive methods for men“ . Frontline . September 1996 . Retrieved 2006-07-28 .
  10. Jump up^ „China acts on forced abortion“ . BBC . September 20, 2005 . Retrieved 2008-07-08 .
  11. Jump up^ [3]Joseph Cox,Will Charging People Money to Have Kids Save the World From Overpopulation, VICE United Kingdom, 24 June 2013