At the global scale, sustainability and environmental management is driving the oceans , the freshwater systems, the land and the atmosphere , according to sustainability principles. [1] [2]

Land use change is Fundamental to the operations of the biosphere Because alterations in the relative proportions of land dedicated to urbanization , agriculture , forest , woodland , grassland and pasture -have a marked effect on the global water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles . [3] The management of the Earth’s atmosphere involves assessment of all aspects of the carbon cycle to identify human-induced climate changeand this has become a major focus of scientific research because of the potential catastrophic effects on biodiversity and human communities. Ocean circulation patterns have a strong influence on climate and weather , in turn, the food supply of both humans and other organisms.

Atmosphere

Further information: Earth’s atmosphere and Climate change

In March 2009 at a meeting of the Copenhagen Climate Council 2,500 climate experts from 80 countries issued a keynote statement that is now „no excuse“ for failing to act on global warming and that without strong carbon reduction targets „steep irreversible gold“ shifts in climate may occur that „will be very difficult for contemporary societies to cope with“. [4] [5] Management of the global atmosphere now Involves assessment of all aspects of the carbon cycle to Identify Opportunities to address human-induced climate change and this HAS Become a Major Focus of Scientific research Because of the potential catastrophic effects is biodiversity and human communities.

Other pollutants in the air , including pollutants , toxicants , toxicants , oxides , sulfuric acid , volatile organic compounds and airborne particulates matter that produce photochemical smog and acid rain , and chlorofluorocarbonsthat degrade the ozone layer . Anthropogenic particles such as sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere and the direct irradiance and reflectance ( albedo ) of the Earth’s surface. Known as global dimming the decline is estimated at 4% between 1960 and 1990. Global dimming may have disturbed the global water cycle by reducing evaporation and rainfall in some areas. It aussi Creates a cooling effect and this May Partially-have masked the effect of greenhouse gases is global warming . [6]

Oceans

Ocean circulation patterns have a strong influence on climate and weather , in turn, the food supply of both humans and other organisms. Scientists have warned of the possibility, under the influence of climate change, of a sudden alteration in circulation patterns of ocean currents that could drastically alter the climate in some regions of the globe. [7] Major human environmental impacts occur in the more habitable regions of the ocean fringes – the estuaries , coastline and bays. Ten per cent of the world’s population – about 600 million people – live in low-lying areas. Trends of concern that require management include: over-fishing (beyond sustainable levels); [8] coral bleaching due to ocean warming and ocean acidification due to increasing levels of dissolved carbon dioxide; [9] and sea ​​level rise due to climate change. Because of their vastness oceans act as a dumping ground for human waste. [10] Remedial strategies include: more careful waste management, statutory control of overfishing by adoption of sustainable fishingpractices and the use of environmentally sensitive and sustainable aquaculture and fish farming , reduction of fossil fuel emission and restoration of coastal and other marine habitat. [11]

Freshwater

Further information: Water crisis

Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface. Of this, 97.5% is the salty water of the oceans and only 2.5% freshwater, most of which is locked up in the Antarctic ice sheet . The remaining freshwater is found in lakes, rivers, wetlands, soil, aquifers and atmosphere. All life depends on the solar-powered global water cycle, the evaporation from oceans and land to form water vapor that later become part of the freshwater supply. [12] Awareness of the global importance of preserving water for ecosystem services has only recently emerged, during the 20th century, more than half the world’s wetlandshave been lost along with their valuable environmental services. Biodiversity -rich freshwater ecosystems are currently declining faster than marine or land ecosystems [13] making them the world’s most vulnerable habitats. [14] Increasing urbanization pollutes clean water supplies and much of the world still does not-have access to clean, safe water . [12] In the industrial world demand management has slowed down absolute use of water resources in the urban areas and energy-hungry desalinationis becoming more widely used. Water management and management of blue (harvestable) and green (water-based). [13]

Land

Further information: Land use

Loss of biodiversity stems from the habitat loss and fragmentation produced by the human appropriation of land for development, forestry and agriculture as natural capital is progressively converted to man-made capital. Land use change is Fundamental to the operations of the biosphere Because alterations in the relative proportions of land dedicated to urbanization , agriculture , forest , woodland , grassland and pasture -have a marked effect on the global water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles and this can impact negatively on both natural and human systems. [3]At the local human scale and increased sustainability benefits from the pursuit of green cities and sustainable parks and gardens . [15] [16]

Forests

Since the Neolithic Revolution , it has reduced the world’s forest cover by 47%. Present-day forests occupy about a quarter of the world’s ice-free land with about half of These Occurring in the tropics [17] In temperate and boreal regions forest area is gradually Increasing (with the exception of Siberia), goal deforestation in the tropics is of major concern. [18]

Forests moderate the local climate and the global water cycle through their light reflectance ( albedo ) and evapotranspiration . They also conserve biodiversity , protect water quality , provide soil and soil quality , provide fuel and pharmaceuticals , and purify the air. These free ecosystem services are not given a market value under current economic MOST systems, and so little forest conservation HAS appeal When Compared with the economic benefits of logging and clearance qui, through soil degradation and organic decomposition returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.[19] The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 90% of the carbon stored in land is locked up in the atmosphere. Most of the total carbon emissions (heavily logged in Indonesia and Brazil are a major source of emissions). [19] Climate change can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in reafforestation schemes, plantations and timber products. Also wood biomass can be used as a renewable carbon-neutralfuel. The FAO has suggested that, over the period 2005-2050, effective use of tree planting could be about 10-20% of man-made emissions – so monitoring the condition of the world’s forests protect ecosystem services. [20] HOWEVER, climate change May pre-empt this scenario FAO as a study by the International Union of Forest Research Organizations in 2009 Concluded que le stress of a 2.5C (4.5f) temperature rise above pre-industrial levels Could result in the release of vast amounts of carbon [21] the potential of forests to act as carbon „sinks“ is „at risk of being lost entirely“. [22]

Cultivated land

Feeding more than six billion human bodies takes a heavy toll on the earth’s resources. This is about 38% of the Earth’s land surface [23] and about 20% of its net primary productivity. [24]Added to this resource is the world of agriculture – everything from the crop to the water, synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to the cost of food packaging, transport (now a major part of global trade) and retail. Food is essential to life. But the list of environmental costs of food production is a long one: topsoil depletion, erosionand conversion to desert from constant tillage of annual crops; overgrazing; salinization ; sodification ; waterlogging ; high levels of fossil fuel use; reliance on inorganic fertilizers and synthetic organic pesticides ; reductions in genetic diversity by the mass use of monocultures ; water resource depletion; pollution of waterbodies by run-off and groundwater contamination ; social problems including the decline of families and weakening of rural communities . [25]

All of These environmental problems associated with industrial agriculture and agribusiness are now being white Addressed through Such movements as sustainable agriculture , organic farming and more sustainable business practices. [26]

Extinctions

Although biodiversity loss can be expected simply as a loss of species, it is effective in protecting natural habitats and ecosystems. Following human migration and population growth, species extinctions have progressively increased to an unprecedented rate since the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event . Known as the Holocene extinction event this current human-induced extinction of species ranks as one of the worlds six mass extinction events . Some scientific estimates indicate that up to half of presently existing species may be extinct by 2100. [27] [28]Current extinction rates are 100 to 1000 times higher than those of 10% and 20% of freshwater species. [29]

The 2008 IUCN Red List warns that long-term droughts and extreme weather conditions are more important than any other species. For example, lists 1,226 bird species with extinction, which is one-of-a-kind. [30] [31] The Red List Index also identifies 44 tree species in Central Asia as a result of over-exploitation and human development and threatens the region’s forests. nut cultivars. [32]

Biological invasions

In many parts of the world, the world has become more vulnerable to climate change , and the destructive effect of invasive species . [33] Increasingly efficient global transportation has facilitated the spread of organisms across the planet. The potential risk of this side of globalization is starkly illustrated through the spread of human diseases like HIV AIDS , mad cow disease , bird flu and swine flu , invasive plants and animals purpose sont également Having a Devastating Impact is native biodiversity. Non-indigenous organisms can quickly occupy the environment where, in the absence of their natural predators , they are able to thrive. [34] At the global scale this issue is being white Addressed through the Global Invasive Species Information Network purpose there is Improved international biosecurity legislation to minimize the transmission of pathogens and invasive organisms. Also, through CITESlegislation Increasingly at the local level public awareness programs are alerting communities, gardeners, the nursery industry, collectors, and the pet and aquarium industries, to the harmful effects of potentially invasive species.[35]

Resistance to change

Main article: Sustainability and systemic change resistance

The environmental sustainability problem has proven difficult to solve. The modern environmental movement has attempted to solve the problem in a wide variety of ways. But little progress has been made, as shown by severe ecological footprint overshoot and lack of sufficient progress on the climate change problem. Something within the human system in the way of change to a sustainable mode of behavior. That system is systemic change resistance. Change resistance is also known as organizational resistance, barriers to change, or policy resistance. [36]

See also

  • Environmental management
  • Integrated landscape management
  • Natural resource management
  • Planetary management

References

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