Subak is the water management (irrigation) system for paddy fields is Bali island, Indonesia qui Was Developed in the 9th century. For the Balinese , the water is used for the construction of roots, water is used to build a complex, pulsed artificial ecosystem. [1] The system consists of nearly 20,000 hectares of land (49,000 acres). The temples are the main focus of this cooperative water management, known as subak .

Religious relationship

Subak is a traditional ecologically sustainable [2] irrigation system that binds Balinese agrarian society together within the village’s Bale Banjar community center and Balinese temples . Tri Hita Karana The water managements is under the authority of the priests in water templesPhilosophy, a self-described relationship between humans, the earth and the gods. Tri Hita Karana draws together the realm of spirit, the human world and nature. The overall subk system exemplifies this philosophical principle. Water temple rituals promote a harmonious relationship between people and their environment through the active engagement of people with ritual concepts that emphasizes dependence on the life-sustaining forces of the natural world. Rice is seen as the gift of god, and the sub-system is part of temple culture.


Subak components are the forests that protect the water supply, terraced paddy landscape, rice fields connected by a system of canals , tunnels and weirs, villages, and temples of varying size and importance of the river or its source of water or its passage through the temple on its way downhill to irrigate subak land. Rice, the water required to grow rice, and subak, the cooperative canal system that controls the water, have together shaped the landscape over the past thousand years. Water from springs and canals flows through the temples and out onto the rice paddy field. In total, Bali has about 1,200 water collectives and between 50 and 400 farmers managing the water supply from one source of water. The property consists of five sites that exemplify the interconnected natural, religious, and cultural components of the traditional subak system. The sites are the Supreme Water Temple of Ulu Pura Danu Batur on the edge of Lake Baturwhich is considered to be the ultimate source of water and water, the Subak Landscape of the Pakerisan Watershed the best known irrigation system in Bali, the Subak Landscape of Catur Angu Batukaru with terraces mentioned in a 10th-century inscription making them among the Ancient in Bali and prime examples of Classical Balinese temple architecture, and the Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun , the largest and most architecturally distinguished regional water temple, exemplifying the fullest expansion of the sub-system under the largest Balinese kingdom of the 19th century. These Saivasiddhanta and Samkhyā Hinduism, Vajrayana Buddhism and Austronesian cosmology.

World Heritage Site status

On July 6, 2012, subak was enlisted as a UNESCO world heritage site . [3] Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy, Consist of Supreme Water Temple Pura Ulun Danu Batu and Lake Batur, Subak Landscape of Pakerisan Watershed, Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Baturkaru , and Royal Temple of Taman Ayun has been inscribed upon a World Heritage List of The Conservation Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Inscription on this list confirm the outstanding universal value of cultural or natural property which reserves protection for the benefit of all humanity.


In 1981, the Subak Museum opened in Tabanan Regency . [4]

See also

  • Anggabaya
  • Bali
  • Tabanan


  1. Jump up^ Lansing, JS (1987). „Balinese“ Water Temples „and the Management of Irrigation“. American Anthropologist . 89 (2): 326-341. doi : 10.1525 / aa.1987.89.2.02a00030 . JSTOR  677758 .
  2. Jump up^ Pratt, Daniel. „Subak – A Sustainable System of Irrigation“ . The Bali Retirement Villages . The Bali Retirement Villages.
  3. Jump up^ „Cultural Landscape of Bali Province“ . UNESCO . Retrieved 1 July 2012 .
  4. Jump up^ „A thousand years on, can ’subak‘ survive?“ . April 18, 2013.