Sustainable services and services for the supply of products and services.

Sustainable development & services

„Service is an action or an activity which can be offered by a party to another party, which is essentially intangible and can not affect any ownership. Service may be related to tangible product or intangible product „. [1]

This conventional marketing services definition only draws little focus to the element of sustainability. However, starting in the 1980s and especially growing since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit and stakeholders likewise highly regarded the environmental and social consequences of the products they purchased. [2] The consumer is one of the world’s leaders in the development of sustainable growth. These early ideas are being developed and developed. [3]

In fact, companies have started their organizational performance by adding environmental quality and social benefits to economic prosperity as part of their business evaluation process and adopting green services and products to reach ever-increasing environmentally aware consumers. [4]

Definition

Sustainable services are „offerings That Satisfy customer needs and Significantly Improve the social and environmental performance along the whole life cycle in comparison to conventional or competing offers.“ [5]

Thus, a service is environmentally favorable when the total amount of environmental impact is increased compared to the amount of environmental impact generated by the service. [6] Related concepts include eco services, eco-efficient services, product-service systems, sustainable service systems and sustainable product service-systems. [7]

An eco-efficient service (EES) is a certain product-service mix which has a higher added value (economics) and a smaller environmental impact compared to a similar product-service mix or a situation in which the activity was not performed at all “ . [8] Added value for consumers and producers. It is generally defined in terms of profit margins, improved image or the ability to comply with governmental rules for producers. Added value to consumers consists of satisfied consumers. Examples are, lower costs, increased flexibility, shifted responsibility or increased convenience. [9]

Characteristics

Sustainable services a certain set of characteristics, which unequivocates them from regular services. There are six main factors: [10]

  • Customer Satisfaction

Sustainable Services must satisfy consumers‘ needs or otherwise become redundant and economically irrelevant.

  • Dual Focus

For labeling as a sustainable and environmentally friendly service.

  • Life-Cycle Orientation

Services function as customer solutions. Therefore, they must provide holistic offerings, providing suitable and sustainable solutions to the consumer at all stages of transportation, manufacturing, distribution , use and post-use). This closed-loop approach contains the principle of reusing and recycling products in the form of a new product.

  • Significant Improvement

Sustainable services need to make a significant long-term contribution on a broad social and ecological scope. This means the benefits should be measurable and take place on a global rather than a local level.

  • Continuous Improvement

Sustainable services are interdependently located within the social flow and institutional norms, state-of-the-art technology and the amount of knowledge at a certain point in time. This means that sustainable services can never be assessed in their own way. Only if these services can be improved, knowledge expands and normative influence changes, they can be considered sustainable services.

  • Competing Offer

Even if the above mentioned points are likely to be positively valued by other competing offers. It must see and define itself in order to keep customers happy and secure.

Considering the characteristics of added value (economics) and environmental impact. However, as shown in Figure 1 shows only high additional value and low environmental impact actually constitutes sustainable or eco-efficient services. [11]

Service Categories

Concerning the product-service-mix there are three main categories of sustainable services: product-, use- and result oriented. [12] Each of them is characterized by a different composition of product and service components.

Product Oriented Services

Product oriented services represent a business model that is mainly focusing on product sales. They can also be described as „product-life-extending services“ [13] as they enhance the utility of ownership by warranties or maintenance services. As a consequence for the greater lifetime of a good energy, materials and machines are needed for production, which means a positive impact on the environment. However, besides this environmental motivation is also an economic incentive and the use of resources is also connected to lower production costs and higher business profits. [14]Product Orientation des services de services et de la maintenance et de la maintenance et de la maintenance de la maintenance de la maintenance de la maintenance de la maintenance. [15] The good’s ownership meanwhile remains completely with customer. Therefore, these services also represent a small variation of the classical buyer-seller relationship. [16]

Subcategories: [17]

  • Product-Related Service

A provider does the sells the product and provides the service.

  • Advice and Consultancy

A provider gives information on the product’s most efficient use (eg organizational or logistical advice).

  • Information

A provider offers users (and sellers) information about their processes and activities, about the product’s environmental performance, about markets and system conditions (eg traffic or storage conditions).

Use Oriented Services

Use oriented services as opposed to product oriented services. Like for example in the private sector Sometimes use is even shared by several users. [18] Car sharingis a typical example. However, while the consumers obtain the product, the responsibility for maintenance and disposal remains with the provider. The eco-efficiency of these services is due to the product’s high use intensity. This reduces the price of energy and the input energy required for production. Further payment in the form of an additional service for producers to reduce the amount of processed resources. [19]

Subcategories: [20]

  • Product lease

The product remains in the producer’s ownership and in its maintenance and responsibility, while the lessee pays a fee for use and has unlimited individual access to the product.

  • Product renting or sharing

Similar to leasing but there is no unlimited access to the product as it is sequentially used by others.

  • Product pooling

Similar to renting and sharing but characterized by a simultaneous product use.

Result Oriented Services

In the case of result is the product itself. Here is the client and provider both. There is no defined product involved. [21] The focus is on the satisfaction of the consumer – how it is satisfied is not relevant. The product is owned and operated by the service provider. Profits are therefore correlated to efficiency and provides a high interest in an optimized and efficient service. In addition to this, the provision of a pre-specified product is possible that sustainable solutions can be included from the beginning. [22]

Subcategories: [23]

  • Pay per service unit

Not the product but its output is bought according to the usage level.

  • Functional result

Provider and client agree on a result, while the provider stays in this way.

Limitations and Barriers

In regards to services, there are many barriers and limitations to more countries and organizations. These barriers, business vision development, policy formulation, idea finding, design, and realization. [24]

Business Vision Development

Business vision development refers to the company’s future development of their company. In order to innovate on a level system, a long-term vision. This may be a barrier to many long-term plans. Possible solutions to this barrier, including the use of strategy and policy, scenario writing, back casting, and road mapping.

Furthermore, high level of high level of uncertainty. The high financial risk is one of the greatest barriers for many companies, providing a sustainable service can be difficult to predict.

Moreover, when developing a more sustainable service, many companies face barriers of forming new business coalitions in order to maintain a more sustainable service at every level of their service chain. It can be difficult to form new business alliances, and possibly even harder to end old partnerships. Two tools that can help overcome this barrier include network management and general process management.

Policy Formulation

Policy formulations for businesses include the goals, strategies and principles implemented. A policy barrier to sustainable services is a strategy that can be combined with an efficient and effective combination of products and services. A possible solution to this barrier is the need for them to view their service and to make it easier for them. Companies also need to formulate an environmental goal they wish to achieve. The current situation of the company needs to be analyzed on the basis of environmental impact. Afterwards, new goals for providing sustainable services can be formulated.

Idea Finding

One of the most essential functions of a company is to generate new ideas that have a competitive advantage. Oneway companies can establish or maintain a competitive advantage by increasing the value of their products and services. As important as it is, it can also be a barrier to developing sustainable services. The concept generation can be more complex when innovating at the level of abstraction. One important consideration is that they should be considered as part of the solution, and that environmental gain could be expected. Blueprinting, Adapted MET-matrix, Adapted LiDS-wheel, Green options generation, Benchmarking and eco-costs or the value approach. The development of different elements of the solutions to sustainable services should be planned in advance, which can be another barrier for companies. The most important tool companies can make use of this tool by using project management tools to establish a course of action and ideas for the future (Brezet et al., 2001). Blueprinting, Adapted MET-matrix, Adapted LiDS-wheel, Green options generation, Benchmarking and eco-costs or the value approach. The development of different elements of the solutions to sustainable services should be planned in advance, which can be another barrier for companies. The most important tool companies can make use of this tool by using project management tools to establish a course of action and ideas for the future (Brezet et al., 2001). Blueprinting, Adapted MET-matrix, Adapted LiDS-wheel, Green options generation, Benchmarking and eco-costs or the value approach. The development of different elements of the solutions to sustainable services should be planned in advance, which can be another barrier for companies. The most important tool companies can make use of this tool by using project management tools to establish a course of action and ideas for the future (Brezet et al., 2001).

Design

The actual design of a sustainable service may be a barrier for the development of the overall design, but it will be difficult to control the overall impacts. Companies… 的 the…………………. The transition from idea to design can be difficult, especially when trying to translate the new ideas into sustainable ideas and short-term strategies. The phase of strict development no longer consists of a product, a combination of products and services, which can be completely different from the current situation. The requirements for each of the elements are known,

Realization

It is important for both the reputation and the usefulness of the sustainable service that is fully developed and tested. This change needs to be announced to the customer through the use of different media functions. The resulting version is environmentally evaluated on the market success and environmental impact. This final stage can be judged with environmental assessments, life cycle assessments,

Rebound Effects

Included in the realization of the sustainable includes environmental services can rebound effects Caused by Implementing a sustainable exchange services. When there is a company offering sustainable services, there can be ‚rebound effects‘. Meaning, negative effects of an initial service activity. Four important types of rebound effects are as follows: effects, effects, space effects, and time effects. [25]

Cost Effects

Cost effects occur when the cost of certain activities or goods decrease. Energy-saving lightbulb may result in a higher cost, which will be reduced in the future.

Respend Effects

Such effects are saved when they are saved, and they are then taken into account, and they are then taken and used to buy more energy.

Space Effects

Take, for example, to a bookstore that wishes to reduce the number or to reduce their impact on the environment. As an alternative, they offer an online store. The online store may result in a higher amount of customers ordering books. While the online store may have some physical impacts associated with retail stores, these may be outweighed with transporting the books over longer distances to an increased amount of customers.

Time Effects

Many consumers in Western society are said to be rich but time poor. By offering online stores, many companies are giving customers the opportunity to use their time effectively, they need to get to the store. However, the rebound effect is likely to be used, which then need to be shipped, possible back and forth in looks to returns.

Classification into Marketing

„Sustainable marketing is an appeal to the ecological and social limitations of the corporate corporate marketing philosophy.“

-  van Dam, YK; Apeldoorn, APC (1996). „Sustainable Marketing“. Journal of Macromarketing . 16 (2): 45-56. doi : 10.1177 / 027614679601600204 .

Conventional marketing is often criticized for its narrow focus on customers and market dimensions. A sustainability management perspective, however, demands a strategic approach to not only around economic management but also around ecological and social issues. [26] By fostering socially equitable and responsible for sustainable global services and sustainable consumption. theory. [27]

References

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  3. Jump up^ Robin, Roy (2000). „Sustainable Product-Service-Systems“. Futures . 32 (3,4): 289-299. doi : 10.1016 / s0016-3287 (99) 00098-1 .
  4. Jump up^ Cronin, JJ; Smith, JS; Gleim, MR; Ramirez, E .; Martinez, JD „Green marketing strategies: an examination of stakeholders and the opportunities they present“. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science39 (1): 158-174. doi : 10.1007 / s11747-010-0227-0 .
  5. Jump up^ Belz, Peattie, Frank Martin, Ken (2009). Sustainability Marketing – A Global Perspective . Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 519.
  6. Jump up^ Zaring, Bartolomeo, Eder, Hopkinson, Groenewegen, James, Jong, Nijhuis, Scholl, Slob, Örninge. „Creating Eco-Efficient Producer Services“(PDF) . Gothenburg Research Institute . Retrieved 2011-06-30 .
  7. Jump up^ van der Zwan, F .; Bhamra, T. (2003). „Marketing services: taking up the sustainable development challenge“. Journal of Marketing Services . 17(4): 341-356. doi : 10.1108 / 08876040310482766 .
  8. Jump up^ Zaring, Bartolomeo, Eder, Hopkinson, Groenewegen, James, Jong, Nijhuis, Scholl, Slob, Örninge. „Creating Eco-Efficient Producer Services“(PDF) . Gothenburg Research Institute . Retrieved 2011-06-30 .
  9. Jump up^ Nijhus, L., Scholl, G., Slob, A. (2001). Creating eco-efficient Producer Services, Research Report . Gothenburg Research Institute.
  10. Jump up^ Belz, Peattie, Frank Martin, Ken (2009). Sustainability Marketing – A Global Perspective . Chicester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  11. Jump up^ Zaring, Bartolomeo, Eder, Hopkinson, Groenewegen, James, Jong, Nijhuis, Scholl, Slob, Örninge. „Creating Eco-Efficient Producer Services“(PDF) . Gothenburg Research Institute.
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  13. Jump up^ Meijkamp, ​​R. (2000). Changing consumer behavior through eco-efficient services – An empirical study on sharing in the Netherlands, PhD thesis . Delft University of Technology.
  14. Jump up^ White, Stoughton, Feng (1999). Servicing: the quiet transition to extended product responsibility . Boston: Tellus Institute.
  15. Jump up^ Bartolomeo, dal Maso; de Jong; P. Eder, P. Groenewegen, P. Hopkinson, P. James, Nijhuis, Örninge, Scholl, Slob, Zaring. „Eco-efficient producer services-what are they, how do they benefit and they are extensively used.“ Journal of Cleaner Production . 11 : 829-837. doi :10.1016 / s0959-6526 (02) 00157-9 .
  16. Jump up^ White, Stoughton, Feng (1999). Servicing: the quiet transition to extended product responsibility . Boston: Tellus Institute.
  17. Jump up^ Tukker, A. (2004). „Eight Types Of Product-Service Systems: Eight Ways To Sustain Sustainability? Experiences From Suspronet“. Business Strategy and the Environment . 13 : 246-260. doi : 10.1002 / bse.414 .
  18. Jump up^ Tukker, A. (2004). „Eight Types Of Product-Service Systems: Eight Ways To Sustain Sustainability? Experiences From Suspronet“. Strategy and the Environment . 13 : 246-260. doi : 10.1002 / bse.414 .
  19. Jump up^ van der Zwan, F .; Bhamra, T. (2003). „Marketing services: taking up the sustainable development challenge“. Journal of Marketing Services . 14(4): 341-356. doi : 10.1108 / 08876040310482766 .
  20. Jump up^ Tukker, A. (2004). „Eight Types Of Product-Service Systems: Eight Ways To Sustain Sustainability? Experiences From Suspronet“. Business Strategy and the Environment . 13 : 246-260. doi : 10.1002 / bse.414 .
  21. Jump up^ Tukker, A. „Eight Types Of Product-Service Systems: Eight Ways To Sustain Sustainability? Experiences From Suspronet“. Business Strategy and the Environment . 13 : 246-260. doi : 10.1002 / bse.414 .
  22. Jump up^ van der Zwan, F .; Bhamra, T. (2001). „Alternative function fulfillment: incorporating environmental considerations into the design space“. Journal of Cleaner Production . 11 : 897-903.
  23. Jump up^ Tukker, A. (2004). „Eight Types Of Product-Service Systems: Eight Ways To Sustain Sustainability? Experiences From Suspronet“. Business Strategy and the Environment . 13 : 246-260. doi : 10.1002 / bse.414 .
  24. Jump up^ Brezet, Bijma, Ehrenfeld, Silvester (2001). The Design of Eco-Efficient Services – Method, Tools and Review of the Study Case Study ‚Designing Eco-Efficient Services‘ Project. Design for Sustainability Program . Delft University of Technology.
  25. Jump up^ Bartolomeo, dal Maso; de Jong; P. Eder, P. Groenewegen, P. Hopkinson, P. James, Nijhuis, Örninge, Scholl, Slob, Zaring (2003). „Eco-efficient producer services-what are they, how do they benefit extensively and are they extensively used?“. Journal of Cleaner Production . 11 : 829-837. doi : 10.1016 / s0959-6526 (02) 00157-9 .
  26. Jump up^ Dunlap, RE (1983). „Commitment to the dominant social paradigm and concern for environmental quality: An empirical investigation“. Social Science Quarterly . 65 (10): 13-28.
  27. Jump up^ Belz, Peattie, Frank Martin, Ken (2009). Sustainability Marketing -A Global Perspective . Chicester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.